Ø These functions accept numeric input
and return numeric values as output.

Ø Many functions return values that
are accurate to 38 decimal point.

**Round Function:**

**Syntax:**

**Round(n,m)**

Ø It returns ‘n’ rounded to ‘m’ places
right of the decimal point.

Ø If ‘m’ is omitted, ‘n’ is round to 0
places.

Ø ‘m’ can be negative and rounds off
the digits to the left of the decimal point.

Ø ‘m’ must be an integer.

**Ex:**

- Select 15.293 num1,
round(15.193,1) rounded from dual;
- Select 15.193 num1,
round(15.193, -1) rounded from dual;
- Select 45.923 num1,
round(45.923,2) rounded,round(45.923,0) rounded , round(45.923,-1) rounded
from dual;

**Truncate Function:**

**Syntax:**

**Trunc(n,m)**

Ø It returns ‘n’ truncated to ‘m’
decimal places.

Ø If ‘m’ is omitted, ‘n’ is truncated
to 0 decimal places.

Ø ‘n’ can be negative to truncate ‘m’
digits left of the decimal point.

**Ex:**

- Select 15.79 num1,
trunc(15.79,1) truncated from dual;
- Select 15.79 num1,
trunc(15.79,-1) truncated from dual;
- Select 15.79 num1,
trunc(45.923,2) truncated, trunc(42.923) truncated, trunk(45.923,-1)
truncated from dual;

**Ceil Function:**

**Syntax:**

**Ceil(n)**

Ø Returns the smallest integer greater
than or equal to ‘n’.

Ø The adjustment is done to the
highest nearest decimal value.

**Ex:**

- Select 15.7 num1,ceil(15.7)
ceiled from dual;
- Select 14.27 num1, ceil(14.27)
ceiled, ceil(14.2) ceiled, ceil(14) ceiled, ceil(0.22) ceiled from dual;

**Floor Function:**

**Syntax:**

**Floor(n)**

Ø Returns the largest integer less
than or equal than ‘n’.

Ø The adjustment is done to the lowest
nearest decimal values.

**Ex:**

- Select 15.7 num1, floor(15.7)
floor from dual;
- Select 14.27 num1, floor(14.27)
floor, floor(14.2) floor, floor(14) floor, floor(0.002) floor from dual;

**Modulus Function:**

**Syntax:**

**MOD(m,n)**

Ø It returns remainder of ‘m’ divided
by ‘n’.

Ø It returns ‘m’ if ‘n’ is 0.

**Ex:**

- Select mod(11,4), mod(10,2)
from dual;

**Power Function:**

**Syntax:**

**power(m,n)**

Ø Returns ‘m’ raised to the ‘n’th
power.

Ø The base ‘m’ and the exponent ‘n’
can be any numbers.

Ø If ‘m’ is negative, ‘n’ must be an
integer.

**Ex:**

- Select power(3,2), power(-3,2)
from dual;
- Select power(3,-2),
power(-3,-2) from dual;
- Select power(-3.5,-2),
power(3,-2.5) from dual;
- Select power(-3.5,2.5),
power(3.5,-2.5) from dual;

**Square Root Function:**

**Syntax:**

**Sqrt(n)**

Ø It returns square root of ‘n’ as
real value.

Ø The value of ‘n’ cannot be negative.

**Ex:**

- Select sqrt(25) from dual;

**Absolute Function:**

**Syntax:**

**ABS(n)**

Ø It returns the absolute value of
‘n’.

**Ex:**

- Select abs(-15) from dual;
- Select sal, comm, sal-comm,
abs(sal-comm) from emp where comm = 1400;

**Sign function:**

**Syntax:**

**sign(n)**

Ø It returns the sign specification of
a number.

Ø If n < 0, Returns -1

Ø If n = 0, Returns 0

Ø If n < 0, Returns 1

**Ex:**

- Select sign(-15), sign(15),
sign(0) from dual;
- Select sal, comm,
sign(sal-comm) from emp where sign(sal-comm) = -1;